Yaakov Katz, rédacteur en chef du grand quotidien The Jerusalem Postet auteur de deux livres à succès consacrés aux affaires militaires israéliennes a récemment accepté de répondre à quelques questions exclusives pour ce blogue. Voici donc le contenu de notre échange, pour lequel je lui suis d’ailleurs très reconnaissant.
Je suis d’avis que les bons auteurs s’inspirent de grands livres. Accepteriez-vous de partager avec mes lecteurs quel est le meilleur livre que vous ayez lu?
J’ai lu plusieurs excellents livres. Celui qui a vraiment influencé mon style d’écriture et de narration s’intitule Thirteen Days in September(13 jours en septembre) par Lawrence Wright. C’est un livre fantastique au sujet des pourparlers de paix de Camp David entre Israël et l’Égypte, mais ce que Wright fait d’étonnant, c’est de donner aux lecteurs le sentiment qu’ils sont dans la pièce avec Begin, Sadate et Carter. Je le recommande vivement.
À l’heure actuelle, l’un des grands objectifs est la technologie laser pouvant intercepter potentiellement des missiles et des tirs de mortiers ennemis en approche. Imaginez ce que cela signifierait pour Israël.
Après avoir lu votre excellent livre The Weapon Wizards (écrit avec Amir Bohbot), je me demandais si vous pouviez me dire quelle nouvelle innovation / invention israélienne pourrait faire son apparition dans un avenir prochain – si vous êtes autorisé à en parler?
Le secteur de la défense et les Forces de défense israéliennes (IDF) sont constamment à la recherche de nouvelles capacités et technologies. À l’heure actuelle, l’un des grands objectifs est la technologie laser pouvant être utilisée à différentes fins, mais avant tout pour intercepter potentiellement des missiles et des tirs de mortiers ennemis en approche. Imaginez ce que cela signifierait pour Israël. Quelques systèmes laser déployés le long de ses frontières pourraient potentiellement libérer le pays de ces missiles qui représentent une menace. Pensez aussi à l’aspect économique de cela – si un intercepteur de type Iron Dome coûte environ 100 000 dollars, un tir laser ne coûterait presque rien.
Dans The Weapon Wizards, on retrouve un chapitre fascinant intitulé « Les armes diplomatiques », à l’intérieur duquel vous faites référence au développement des relations d’Israël avec la Chine. Que diriez-vous sur l’état de cette relation aujourd’hui (où elle en est actuellement)?
Les relations entre Israël et la Chine ont commencé par des ventes d’armes. C’est l’histoire fantastique d’un petit pays qui s’est servi de sa technologie d’armement pour nouer des relations diplomatiques avec plusieurs pays, dont certains plus grands, à travers le monde. Israël entretient aujourd’hui de vastes liens économiques et commerciaux avec la Chine, mais rien dans le domaine de la défense. Cette décision a été prise il y a une quinzaine d’années, pour éviter toute tension avec les États-Unis.
Même si Vladimir Poutine a accepté qu’Israël mène des opérations en Syrie, cette position pourrait changer demain.
Comment envisagez-vous les relations d’Israël avec la Russie dans un avenir proche?
“The most important 6 inches on the battlefield is between your ears.” – James N. Mattis
Israeli soldiers have always impressed me. Because they know how to use their brains.
Few years ago, I was impressed to observe several young Israeli soldiers carrying their Tavor assault rifle – which was selected by the IDF to replace the M-16 – a weapon better adapted to urban warfare, which is a necessity for the Israel’s Defense Force (IDF).
In itself, the apparition of the Tavor is a vignette of Israel’s legendary capacity to find a solution to a challenging situation.
The authors recount how, in the days preceding the country’s Declaration of Independence in 1948, the leaders of the Yishuv understood that they could not only count on others to build up and develop their military and defense infrastructure. The kibbutzim who fabricated ammunition clandestinely paved the way to a country that is now the 8th largest arms exporter in the world and became “[…] the world’s largest exporter of drones”, while also developing discreet relations with China at the height of the Cold War.
Barack Obama is the godfather of the Iron Dome missile defense system.
It is therefore enthralling to learn how drones – a common feature in current military operations nowadays – were invented in the late 1960s by an Israeli innovator who had to surmount lots of opposition. Or how President Barack Obama’s intervention represented a lifesaver for the Iron Dome, after one of his advisors “[…] was struck by Israel’s lack of strategic depth and how close towns and cities were to the threats brewing in the North and South. When Kahl returned to Washington, he drafted a memo recommending that the White House immediately authorize $200 million in Iron Dome funding.”
Autistic people serve in the IDF in a subunit of highly qualified people.
Thanks to Katz and Bohbot, the reader understands that, while Israel lacks geographical strategic depth, this feature is largely compensated by the resourcefulness of its people. The most interesting passage of the book is when the authors write about a special form of recruitment in Israel’s Armed Forces. “Gathering the intelligence is only half the job. The other half is analyzing the imagery. For that, the IDF created a subunit of highly qualified soldiers who have remarkable visual and analytical capabilities. The common denominator among its members is just as remarkable: they all have autism.”
I can think of no other country that does this.
In the IDF, a noncommissioned officer can argue with a general.
In terms of uniqueness, there is another aspect that struck me in the form of “[…] the country’s infamous casualness and informality.” They give the examples of a noncommissioned officer who argued with a general or the reservists who complained directly to the Prime Minister’s Office about a commander who lacked leadership, therefore blocking his promotion. In most of the military structures, an argument and / or a complaint represents the end of one’s advancement. Katz and Bohot write that “creativity can only happen when people come together and exchange ideas. To do that, they need to know each other and share the same language and culture. In Israel, they do that in the army.”
Anyone who spent some time in Israel understands the notion that Israelis have no difficulties bending the rules. Oftentimes, the book refers to an occasion when an inventor or innovator used what we call “chutzpah” (a word that is often used between the covers) to progress, violating regulations or bypassing the chain of command to get in touch directly with the Minister of defense. These innovators know that the battlefield is only a few kilometers away and that “[…] if Israel is not creative in its thinking, there is a chance it will not survive.”
Israel’s military capabilities depend on its capacity to adapt and embrace technological and scientific innovation. Those who wear a lab coat and annoy the top brass with their disruptive ideas are responsible for giving the men and women in uniform the edge they need on the battleground to carry the day.
The brains of Israeli’s innovators represents the strategic depth of the country’s defense.
The Weapon Wizards is not only a brilliant exposé of Israel’s military technology. It’s also a colourful account of what makes the IDF so unique and forward-thinking, the brilliance of its people, which is the best possible insurance policy for the future.
All of this said, I have only one regret about The Weapon Wizards: not having read it before. And I’ll be very curious to read anything that I’ll be able to put my hands on about the Rafael defense technology company – a fascinating ambassador of Israel’s capacity to develop effective military solutions against all odds.
In this difficult period where many of us are called to stay home to better fight the Covid-19 pandemic, many are finding themselves with more time to read. All those who nourish an interest in military history will love this book. Trust me.
Yaakov Katz and Amir Bohbot, The Weapon Wizards: How Israel Became a High-Tech Military Superpower,New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2017, 304 pages.
I would like to express special thanks to Mr. Joseph Rinaldi of St. Martin’s Press for his kind and precious assistance.
After reading the excellent book Shadow Strike: Inside Israel’s Secret Mission to Eliminate Syrian Nuclear Power (St. Martin’s) by Yaakov Kaatz, I was struck about the inestimable contribution of former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert to public life and international affairs. I therefore thought it might be an excellent idea to conduct an interview with this fascinating character. Mr. Olmert immediately agreed and you will discover a man who’s an avid reader nourishing a serious interest in US political history. Here’s the content of our exchange.
It is my opinion that you have been underestimated as Prime Minister. What accomplishment(s) are you the proudest of and why?
It seems to me that lately, the attitude to me as a former Prime Minister is different than it appeared to be when I left my position. Perhaps, in large part, because time has passed, and people can compare my activities as Prime Minister with the one who came after me. Many may think that my activity has been by far better than the impression they once had.
Many may think that my activity has been by far better than the impression they once had.
The actions I am most proud of in the field of welfare. The fact that I brought about the rehabilitation of hundreds of thousands of Holocaust survivors who for various reasons over many years the Israeli government ignored its duty to look after their needs. The Israeli government during my time invested billions of shekels for this important cause.
In the field of education, I was involved, as Prime Minister, in reforming Israel’s education system, along with the then Minister of Education, Professor Yuli Tamir. We instituted a far-reaching reform called “New Horizon” which entailed adding billions of shekels to the Education Ministry’s budget.
In the security field, I am proud of the achievements of the Second Lebanon War, which have resulted in a complete calm for over the past 13 years on the northern border. Kiryat Shmona has lived for decades under a constant threat of terrorist attacks and artillery fire no more. I am proud of my decision to destroy of the nuclear reactor in Syria, which posed a real danger to the State of Israel. I am also proud of the peace negotiations that I made with the Palestinian Authority and that were closer than any negotiations we have ever had to a permanent peace settlement between Israel and the Palestinian people.
I am also proud of the peace negotiations that I made with the Palestinian Authority and that were closer than any negotiations we have ever had to a permanent peace settlement between Israel and the Palestinian people.
Who’s the historical figure / leader that inspires you the most?
Many characters have influenced my worldview and have been an inspiration, it is hard to think about one person.
Churchill – Who didn’t grow up to admire him?!
Roosevelt – the man who rescued the US from economic immersion and brought America to save the entire world from the Nazis in Europe and Japanese fascists in the Far East.
The man I remember in international politics with great longing is Bobby Kennedy. Bobby Kennedy was a man with a huge heart, with a great sensitivity to the distressed populations who demanded someone to care about them. African Americans, Hispanics, Mexicans, Native Americans and many others, there was no one to care for them like him. I remember how much it hurt when he was murdered.
Bobby Kennedy was a man with a huge heart, with a great sensitivity to the distressed populations who demanded someone to care about them.
In Israel, two characters have always been my inspiration. Menachem Begin, who was the first Prime Minister of the National Camp and whom I was privileged to work with and for him as a Knesset member in the Likud. And Moshe Dayan who was a brave soldier and statesman who saw far more with one eye than many saw with two eyes. He was a poet and writer and archaeologist and a brilliant military leader. A man who did not like people’s company but accorded me many hours of private conversations at the beginning of my career whose tastes have not disappeared to this day.
You have been through very difficult periods in your life (Mr. Olmert spent 16 months in prison in 2016-2017 in relation with a real-estate project). I could only imagine how hard it must have been on you and the members of your family. What gave you strength to surmount it?
What helped me deal with the difficulties I encountered was on top of the love of my family – my wife, my children and my grandchildren, also the knowledge that I had never done anything that justified my indictment. The sense of justice gives a lot of power.
What helped me deal with the difficulties I encountered was on top of the love of my family.
I know your wife is a very talented artist. I once saw one of her paintings at the office of what was then called the Canada-Israel Committee (now CIJA) in Jerusalem. It goes without saying that intellectual life must be important in your family. Are you an avid reader and what do you like to read?
My wife is a very talented painter and I am very happy that her paintings are in both the office and the home we share and are exhibited in many places in Israel and abroad.
I read many books, my tastes are very eclectic. I read fiction, thrillers, biographies of political people. I read all of Robert Caro’s books in the past year about former President Lyndon B. Johnson. I read the biography of General MacArthur by William Manchester. I have read John Steinbeck’s books – East of Eden and Grapes of Wrath and I now read William Faulkner’s The sound and the Fury and many other books.
I read all of Robert Caro’s books in the past year about former President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Are you a fan of James Bond and books about special / secret operations? (that question came from reading the following in Shadow Strike: “During his term as prime minister, Olmert made a point of knowing every detail and approving every single Mossad operation that took place outside Israel’s borders.” (p. 46) Okay, okay, I should have known that Israeli Security Services undeniably can match any James Bond movie.)
I’m not a big fan of James Bond movies, I know a lot more fascinating realities than these movies but as an entertainment I sometimes watch them.
What do you appreciate the most about your new life?
I enjoy my life with my extended and beautiful family. I enjoy my business activities and especially the world of innovation and technology in which I invest money from a venture capital fund I run.
Do you miss political life?
I never liked political activity. I liked being in positions where I could make decisions on national affairs and I miss that. If I could, I would continue my work to bring peace between Israel and the Palestinians. I believe that the Trump Peace Plan is not good enough and lacks many elements to be balanced, but even though, it has the basis that can prompt renewed negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, which is what I recommended to Abu Mazen to do.
The Trump Peace Plan is not good enough and lacks many elements to be balanced, but even though, it has the basis that can prompt renewed negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.
What do you think of the fact that Israelis have to return to the polls for the third time in about 6 months?
I think it is a pity that there will be a third round of elections in less than a year in Israel, but I believe that following the upcoming elections, the government will change and the political atmosphere in Israel will change as well as the nature of public discourse can be changed and the atmosphere will be more tolerant and more relaxed in Israeli politics.
I believe […] the government will change and the political atmosphere in Israel will change as well as the nature of public discourse can be changed and the atmosphere will be more tolerant and more relaxed in Israeli politics.
How do you feel generally about your country?
The State of Israel is a very successful state, there is none like it and will never be, and I am proud to be its citizen and its former Prime Minister.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to former Prime Minister Olmert for the generosity of his time. I surely hope his memoirs, which have already been published in Hebrew, will be available in English at some point in the future.